PDC 107: Emissions, Exposure, and Health Impact of 3D Printing Processes – NEW!

Dr. Marilyn Black, PhD, LEED AP Lead Instructor
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Marietta, GA 
United States of America
Aika Davis, PhD Instructor
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Marietta, GA 
United States of America
Dr. Aleksandr Stefaniak, PhD, CIH Instructor
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Morgantown, WV 
United States of America
Dr. Rodney Weber, PhD Instructor
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 
United States of America
Dr. Qian Zhang, PhD Instructor
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Marietta, GA 
United States of America
Mon, 6/8: 2:00 PM  - 6:00 PM 
Professional Development Course 
Room: Virtual 1 
CM Credit Hours: 3.5 


As 3D printing becomes more common and prevalent, users and employers are becoming aware of 3D printer emissions and the potential adverse health impacts. Extensive research shows that 3D printing with fused thermoplastic filaments (FFF) will emit high levels of ultrafine/fine particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The emission levels are related to the feedstock applied and printer operation and may exceed recommended exposure levels for indoor environments. In this course, a summary of the published findings will be presented along with research studies performed by NIOSH, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Information to be presented includes: a) aerosol characteristics; b) techniques for measuring particles and VOCs; c) aerosol models; d) indoor air exposure models; e) toxicity assessment methodologies; f) ANSI/CAN/UL 2904 standard for measurement and assessment protocols for the printer emissions; g) school and occupational field studies; and h) research results. Exposure to 3D printer emissions is correlated to negative health effects. Room situations, printer operations, feedstocks, and environmental conditions can impact exposure concentrations.

Course Outline

• Emissions from 3D Printing,
• Toxicity Associated with 3D Printing Emissions
• Exposure Levels from Various 3D Printing Sites
• Control Techniques to Minimize Emission Exposures
• Volatile Organic Compounds, Particulate Matter, and Metal Emissions
• Potential Health Effects from 3D Printing Emissions 

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion, the participant will be able to:

• Identify chemical and particle emission characteristics of 3D printing.
• Use aerosol formation and human exposure models.
• Select equipment and methodologies for measuring real-time chemical/particle emissions.
• Determine particle size distributions, the types of equipment required and retrieve/analyze the data.
• Evaluate health hazards based on particle sizes, emission levels and rates.
• Calculate exposure concentration based on indoor air models.
• Communicate hazards based on regulatory requirements and guidelines.
• Train users to select lower emitting 3D printers and ventilation/local exhaust controls. 

Value Added

Attendees will receive skills, tools, references to assist them in evaluating exposures from 3D printers. 

Business Case/IH Value Statement

Information on exposure impact and how it can affect indoor air quality, productivity, and health, can help build a business case for implementing corrective action with ventilation controls or source controls. 

Course Level


Learning Aids


Learning Level(s)



Exposure Assessment Strategies
Indoor Environmental Quality/Indoor Air Quality